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However, these changes did not occur in tandem: while neodymium isotope ratios increase between 10 and 8 Ma, lead isotope ratios remain constant. In contrast, the period 7 to 1 Ma is marked by a secular increase in lead iso tope ratios but nearly constant neodymium. These changes are consistent with a source of radiogenic lead and neodymium conveyed by the Circumpolar Current into the Pacific, rather than by the Panama gateway, and involve 20 to 40% Southern Component Water (SCW) input of lead and neodymium. Modelling of lead and neodymium isotopic mixing between the different water masses involved in generating Pacific deep waters lead us to the following conclusions: (1) Small variations in the strength and composition of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) have a relatively minor effect on the amounts of lead and neodymium from SCW contributing to the Pacific and (2) an enhanced SCW flow with an open isthmus of Panama, as suggested by General Circulation Models (GCM), requir es a corresponding reduction in NADW Pb and Nd contributions to SCW.\n\nThe general agreement between the isotopic compositions of surface layers of Mn nodules, integrated over such long time intervals, and those of present-day bottom waters at their resp ective locations show that the present-day ocean circulation pattern has dominated through the Pleistocene. Our study of Mn crust Va13-2 shows that shorter-term changes in lead and neodymium isotope ratios can be resolved, provided that such crusts are sa mpled at an appropriate time resolution.","DOI":"10.1016/S0016-7037(97)00218-4","ISSN":"0016-7037","author":[{"family":"Abouchami","given":"W."},{"family":"Goldstein","given":"S.L."},{"family":"Gazer","given":"S.J.G."},{"family":"Eisenhauer","given":"A."} ,{"family":"Mangini","given":"A."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["1997"]]},"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2012",6,18]]}},"label":"page"},{"id":964,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/15709/items/CWTCBWV4"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/15709/items/CWTCBWV4"],"ite mData":{"id":964,"type":"article-journal","title":"Actual timing of neodymium isotopic variations recorded by Fe-Mn crusts in the western North Atlantic","container-title":"Earth and Planetary Science Letters","page":"149-156","volume":"171","author":[{"f amily":"Burton","given":"K.W."},{"family":"Der-Cheun","given":"Lee"},{"family":"Christensen","given":"J. 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We report the fir st resolution lead and neodymium isotopic record of such changes at a high time resolution in two depths profiles from a hydrogenous FeMn crust. The crust, Va13-2, is located in the central Pacific (146°W, 9°25′N, 4830 m) and has previously been dated by 230Th and 10Be. The first profile was drilled with a sample time resolution of ∼3 kyr and allows evaluation of short-term changes to lead and neodymium sources to central Pacific seawater over the last 400 kyr (marine δ18O stages 2 to 11). Longer-term ch anges were monitored at lower time resolution in a second profile to an age of 10 Ma.\n\nShort-term variations in lead and neodymium isotope ratios are resolved in the high resolution profile (0 to 400 kyr). Superimposed on the short-term variations is a secular decrease in 206Pb204Pb ratios beginning at ∼130 kyr in marine δ18O stage 5, implying a change in the lead sources to the central Pacific. Lead and neodymium isotopic compositions indicate an increased influence from Central American eolian sources to Pacific seawater at this time. Lead isotopes are found to be statistically more variable during interglacial than glacial periods. These observations are supported by the greater eolian dust fluxes found in sediment cores from the equatorial Pacific d uring interglacial stages.\n\nThe most important paleoceanographic event of the last 10 Ma to affect Pacific seawater was the closure of the Panama gateway. Changes in lead and neodymium isotopes in Val3-2 during the last 10 Ma occurred along with gradual ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {"citationID":"rgnjra1ic","properties":{"formattedCitation":"{\\rtf (\\i 24\\i0{})}","plainCitation":"(24)"},"citationItems":[{"id":214,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/15709/items/9KWQEABD"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/15709/ items/9KWQEABD"],"itemData":{"id":214,"type":"article-journal","title":"Temporal Relationships of Carbon Cycling and Ocean Circulation at Glacial Boundaries","container-title":"Science","page":"1933-1938","volume":"307","author":[{"family":"Piotrowski","g iven":"A. M."},{"family":"Goldstein","given":"S. L."},{"family":"Hemming","given":"S. 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Pre-shift and post-shift time\ndiffer in that precession-driven variations become more important in the late Quaternary; at the same time the 100 k yr cycle\nbecomes dominant. A number of possible explanations have been put forward to explain the change in character of climatic fluctuations,\ncalling on non-linear feedback mechanisms within a steady-state system, among which are ice-mass responses to extreme size\nincrease (such as basal melting) and extension of lowland ice over shelves, where marine downdraw becomes possible. Here we\nemphasize the role of the unidirectional modifications of land morphology by ice erosion (as proposed by Nansen) as a factor\nin generating deep shelves (e.g., Barents Sea), valleys for channelling of ice, and uplift providing for mountain peaks where\na new ice buildup can begin after an interglacial has run its course. Also, we consider that increased positive feedb ack from\nvariations in albedo and atmospheric carbon dioxide is important, and we present evidence for a significant role of ocean\ncirculation (Nordic heat pump) for the time after the Mid-Pleistocene Revolution.","URL":"http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/GM085p 0295","ISBN":"0-87590-042-9","author":[{"family":"Berger","given":"W. 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However, these changes did not occur in tandem: while neodymium isotope ratios increase between 10 and 8 Ma, lead isotope ratios remain constant. In contrast, the period 7 to 1 Ma is marked by a secular increase in lead iso\ )/ZOTERO_BREF_VaOfawBEwayl_11(tope ratios but nearly constant neodymium. These changes are consistent with a source of radiogenic lead and neodymium conveyed by the Circumpolar Current into the Pacific, rather than by the Panama gateway, and involve 20 to 40% Southern Component Water \ )/ZOTERO_BREF_VaOfawBEwayl_12(\(SCW\) input of lead and neodymium. Modelling of lead and neodymium isotopic mixing between the different water masses involved in generating Pacific deep waters lead us to the following conclusions: \(1\) Small variations in the strength and composition\ of )/ZOTERO_BREF_VaOfawBEwayl_13(North Atlantic Deep Water \(NADW\) have a relatively minor effect on the amounts of lead and neodymium from SCW contributing to the Pacific and \(2\) an enhanced SCW flow with an open isthmus of Panama, as suggested by General Circulation Models \(GCM\), \ requir)/ZOTERO_BREF_VaOfawBEwayl_14(es a corresponding reduction in NADW Pb and Nd contributions to SCW.\\n\\nThe general agreement between the isotopic compositions of surface layers of Mn nodules, integrated over such long time intervals, and those of present-day bottom waters at their re\ sp)/ZOTERO_BREF_VaOfawBEwayl_15(ective locations show that the present-day ocean circulation pattern has dominated through the Pleistocene. Our study of Mn crust Va13-2 shows that shorter-term changes in lead and neodymium isotope ratios can be resolved, provided that such crusts are sa\ )/ZOTERO_BREF_VaOfawBEwayl_16(mpled at an appropriate time resolution.","DOI":"10.1016/S0016-7037\(97\)00218-4","ISSN":"0016-7037","author":[{"family":"Abouchami","given":"W."},{"family":"Goldstein","given":"S.L."},{"family":"Gazer","given":"S.J.G."},{"family":"Eisenhauer","given":"A.\ "})/ZOTERO_BREF_VaOfawBEwayl_17(,{"family":"Mangini","given":"A."}],"issued":{"date-parts":[["1997"]]},"accessed":{"date-parts":[["2012",6,18]]}},"label":"page"},{"id":964,"uris":["http://zotero.org/users/15709/items/CWTCBWV4"],"uri":["http://zotero.org/users/15709/items/CWTCBWV4"],"ite\ )/ZOTERO_BREF_VaOfawBEwayl_18(mData":{"id":964,"type":"article-journal","title":"Actual timing of neodymium isotopic variations recorded by Fe-Mn crusts in the western North Atlantic","container-title":"Earth and Planetary Science Letters","page":"149-156","volume":"171","author":[{"f\ )/ZOTERO_BREF_VaOfawBEwayl_19(amily":"Burton","given":"K.W."},{"family":"Der-Cheun","given":"Lee"},{"family":"Christensen","given":"J. 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We report the fir\ )/ZOTERO_BREF_VaOfawBEwayl_4(st resolution lead and neodymium isotopic record of such changes at a high time resolution in two depths profiles from a hydro\ genous FeMn crust. The crust, Va13-2, is located in the central Pacific \(146W, 925 2N, 4830 m\) and has previously been dated \ by)/ZOTERO_BREF_VaOfawBEwayl_5( 230Th and 10Be. The first profile was drilled with a sample time resolution of "<3 kyr and allows evaluation of short-term cha\ nges to lead and neodymium sources to central Pacific seawater over the last 400 kyr \(marine 18O stages 2 to 11\). Longer-term \ ch)/ZOTERO_BREF_VaOfawBEwayl_6(anges were monitored at lower time resolution in a second profile to an age of 10 Ma.\\n\\nShort-term variations in lead and neodymium isotope ratios are resolved in the high resolution profile \(0 to 400 kyr\). 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